Do you find it difficult to concentrate, feel the need to keep scrolling when you shouldn’t, or interrupt others? If you find that these behaviors are persistent and have a negative impact on your daily life, it may be a sign of Attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. Also known as ADHD.
People with Attention Deficit Disorder have a short attention span and are unable to control their impulsive behavior. They can also be restless and constantly on the move. ADHD is not just a childhood disorder.
ADHD symptoms begin in childhood, but They can progress into adolescence and adulthood.
Hyperactivity usually improves as infants and children become young adults. But problems like inattention, confusion, and lack of impulse control can persist into adolescence and adulthood.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be described as follows
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder It is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder. That is, a neurological condition that develops in early childhood usually happens before school age. Thus, it affects the development of personal, social, academic and vocational skills.
These problems often affect the acquisition, retention, and application of certain skills and information. Neurodevelopmental disorders may be associated with dysfunction in one or more of the following areas: attention, memory, perception, language, problem solving, and social relationships.
Other common neurodevelopmental disorders are ASD, learning disabilities for example, dyslexia and intellectual disabilities.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD has been considered by some professionals as a behavioral disorder. This is due to the coexistence of conduct disorders, especially rebellion and conduct disorders, which are common.
Nevertheless, ADHD has a well-studied neurological basis And it’s not just “bad.” However, some experts believe that this disorder is over-diagnosed. This is mainly due to imprecise application of the criteria: according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are three types
- Attention deficit
- Predominant hyperactivity and impulsivity
Usually attention deficit disorder twice as common in men than in women, but this proportion varies according to the type. The predominant type of hyperactivity/impulsivity is two to nine times more common in boys.
While the predominant type of inattention is equally common in children of both sexes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is usually hereditary.
Examples of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Case study: 10-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
The cause of the complaint is the child’s school environment. It manifests itself in the child’s excessive movement, disorganization, lack of interest in homework, disruptive behavior and impulsiveness.
The child lives in a family environment in which both parents live separately. The mother does not live with them. The father works all day and the child is taken care of by his grandmother.
The diagnosis indicates that the child suffers from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
In this situation, treatment with a special medication prescribed by the family doctor was chosen. At the same time, family and individual therapy was offered, as well as therapeutic support for the child at school.
Case description: An eight-year-old girl does poorly in school, is easily distracted, and lacks attention in class.
Does not exhibit excessive physical activity or disruptive behavior. However, he has a certain impulsiveness.
The diagnosis shows Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, subtype of inattention with epilepsy, and school absenteeism.
The principle of specific antiepileptic treatment has been addressed in this situation.
Case study: An 8-year-old boy who took longer than usual to finish his school work and needs to be repeated several times. He has an above average IQ, exactly 124. He is a rather restless boy who is afraid of water and insects.
As far as his family is concerned, his father was quite absent-minded.
The diagnosis shows ADHD subtype inattention.
In this situation, it was recommended that the child be discharged without medication, but the focus was on psychological support for the child.
Presentation of the case: A 5-year-old boy has difficulty participating in school activities and loses patience when he doesn’t get what he wants.
The child has difficulty sitting still both at school and at home. Also, his intelligence is lagging compared to that of his classmates.
Brown spots were found on the boy’s back.
The diagnosis is a combination of neurofibromatosis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Methods of introducing medication and therapy into student rooms need further investigation.
Practical case: A 7-year-old boy presents with attention deficit disorder and negative reactions in class.
The child is neither hyperactive nor impulsive, but is easily distracted and has a lower than average IQ (87).
His father has dyslexia.
Some people with ADHD show signs that decrease with age, but some adults continue to show signs that affect their daily lives. In adults, the main signs of ADHD can be difficulty concentrating, impulsiveness, and delusions. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.
Many adults with attention deficit disorder are not aware that they have it, they simply find it difficult to perform everyday tasks.
To adults with ADHD find it difficult to concentrate and set priorities, they often miss deadlines or forget appointments and social events. Impulse control disorders can manifest as impatience, mood swings, and outbursts of anger while waiting in line or in a traffic jam.
Signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults can be
- low idealization
- Low tolerance to frustration
- recurring mood swings
- Disorganization and inability to set priorities
- Difficulty coping with stress
- Excessive activity and worry
- Inability to focus on one task at a time
- poor time management
- Discomfort with housework
- awkward multitasking
- irritable temper
How is ADHD treated?
ADHD has no cure, but the latest treatments can help reduce symptoms and improve performance. Attention deficit disorder can be treated with medication, education, psychotherapy, or a combination of these methods.
Pharmacological treatment of ADHD reduces hyperactivity and impulsivity in many people and improves their ability to concentrate, work and learn. The first of the treatment options for ADHD is stimulants.
- Stimulants: It may seem unusual to treat ADHD with drugs called stimulants, but it’s an effective approach. Some researchers believe that stimulants work by increasing the amount of dopamine in the brain, which plays an important role in cognition and attention.
- Non-stimulants: These drugs take longer to work than stimulants, but they can improve concentration, attention, and impulsivity in people with ADHD.
Doctors may prescribe non-stimulants when the side effects of stimulants are severe, when stimulants don’t work, or when they are used in combination with stimulants to increase their effectiveness. Examples of non-stimulant drugs are atomoxetine and guanfacine.
- Antidepressants: antidepressants have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ADHD, but they can be used by adults to treat this disorder.
The older antidepressants, known as tricyclics, are rarely used because they affect the brain chemicals norepinephrine and dopamine. In the same way as stimulants.
These medicines come in different types and brands., each with different effects and side effects. In some cases, it may be necessary to try different drugs and different doses before finding the right drug for a particular person.
People taking medications should be closely monitored by the doctor who prescribed them. If you have a problem with a medicine you are taking, or if you are concerned that a medicine is doing more harm than good. Contact your doctor immediately.
Your doctor may adjust your dose or prescribe another, more effective medication.
- Psychological treatment: Different types of psychotherapy have been tried for attention deficit disorder. But the studies have shown that psychotherapy may not be effective to treat ADHD symptoms.
However, the incorporation of psychotherapy in the procedural approach to the treatment of this disorder can help patients and their families better cope with everyday challenges.
To help kids and teens with attention deficit disorder get organized and follow rules. Parents and teachers can use strategies such as managing routines and schedules.
As well as the organization of daily materials, the use of folders and notebooks for homework as well as praise and reward children for following the rules.
In adults, psychologists and therapists can help them with attention deficit disorder to manage their history. These strategies may include learning to follow a routine and break large tasks down into smaller, more manageable ones.
ADHD symptoms are influenced by genes and environment. Knowing these factors is important to understand how to improve the performance of people with this syndrome. Here are some of them.
It is estimated that the causes of attention deficit disorder are related to the genetic information or inheritance that the person receives from their parents. Thus, It is common for there to be several affected by ADHD in a family.
There is scientific evidence that several genes are related to attention deficit disorder, and the degree of influence varies.
Environmental components: Several environmental factors are associated with attention deficit disorder. Some of them occur during pregnancy.
As maternal intoxication with alcohol and nicotine, during and after childbirth. Fetal distress due to lack of oxygen, prematurity, low birth weight, central nervous system infections, brain injuries.
Protective and prognostic factors
The development of attention deficit disorder has protective and prognostic elements. Protection items include
- The family: the family unit, in which parents and children are in close contact, is the most important factor for the future of a person with ADHD.
Set clear and strict rules for family communicationestablish parenting priorities for both parents, avoid rule conflicts, combine discipline and affection.
Being understanding but assertive, anticipating consequences for behavior, providing positive reinforcement, and allowing the child to explore and develop specific interests are some of the things families with ADHD need to consider.
Once the adult has been tested, the family unit becomes one cornerstone of support and emotional well-being.
The partner of the person with attention deficit disorder, the children and other members of the family can be fundamental to guarantee an adaptation and adequate management. For this, it is necessary address the causes of the disorder without blaming the patient.
- Parental Mental Health: Family members of people with ADHD often experience severe mental exhaustion because of their own experiences and failures. Because they do not know the mechanisms and resources necessary to deal with the problems they face.
We must not forget to provide these families with emotional support. Each of us needs to improve our own mental health. Find time to enjoy what we like, get enough sleep, have free time, exercise, strengthen our social bonds and spend time on personal enrichment.
Excessively defensive and paternalistic treatment of the child does not support the child’s independent impulses. It places an excessive burden on the parents and does not prepare the child for adult life. From the moment of diagnosis, we must strive to provide the child with the necessary tools to reduce the stress of ADHD and help them reach their full potential.
- Early diagnostic: patients with attention deficit disorder have more or less related problems. They depend not only on the severity of the manifestation, but also on their psychological resources, their living environment and whether they have other similar disorders.
However, it is clear that how much The longer it takes to recognize the problem, the longer it takes to solve it.. Blaming the family or the individual, denying the case, or assuming that things will get better with time will only make the situation worse.
Therefore, if you have even the slightest suspicion that your family member has ADHD, you should first seek the advice of a clinician with sufficient experience and training. Knowing the resources available, the nature of the disorder, and the treatment options available will help you make decisions that resolve the problem as quickly as possible.
- Individualized treatment: treatment of ADHD is generally considered It is based on three pillars: pharmacological, psychological and psychoeducational. However, keep in mind that the personal needs of each person vary throughout history.
Therefore, it is important that treatments are tailored to the specific situation and that efforts are assessed and directed accordingly. Not all people with ADHD receive the same treatment. This is why a personal evaluation is so valuable.
- Promotion and prevention of health: People with ADHD are more prone to other illnesses and accidents than the general population. The symptoms of this disorder contribute to it.
There is an increased risk of exposure to harmful substances, occupational and traffic accidents. Unhealthy lifestyles and poor management of chronic diseases.
That is why health promotion and disease prevention measures are so important. It is of great importance to work with children and young people to simplify prevention measures and promote healthy lifestyles.
- Intelligence quotient: People with ADHD who have a high IQ They usually have a good prognosis. Because they can compensate to a certain extent and over time for the tension caused by inattention.
The prognosis of people with the mentioned disorder who have a low IQ is usually poor because the learning process is very complex.
Poor prognostic factors
- ADHD type: the hyperactive/impulsive type has a poor prognosis, as does ADHD with severe symptoms.
- Paternal psychopathology: if the parents have a history of psychopathology, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the child is at increased risk for emotional problems in adolescence.
- hostility and conflict: in family relationships can lead to a worse prognosis.
- comorbidity: refers to the presence of other disorders that coexist with ADHD, with the following disorders having a more significant impact on the prognosis of attention deficit disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, substance abuse and bipolar disorder.