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8 Examples of Gas: Types and properties you should know

In this article you will find some examples of gases existing in the world, their properties, types and laws that support them. Chemistry is the science that studies the possible structures and changes that can occur in all forms of matter. Gases are one of the most important areas of chemical analysis.

For him Belgian chemist Jan Van Helmont the term “gas” was defined. Several formulas have been developed to describe the behavior of gases. using statistical methods. These equations were not suitable for all types of gas and had to be simplified and modified, and models established for different gases.

The low material density makes your applications limitless. Therefore, we can say that gas is an expanding state of matter, without volume, and is not suitable for such a state.

As for gases, are very different from other liquids. As already mentioned, we have the possibility to generalize what exists in the great distance of the vacuum between the different particles that compose it.

gas examples

1. Nitrogen

in the chemical industry an essential component is nitrogen. It is used to make fertilizers, nitric acid, nylon, paints, and gunpowder. To form these products, nitrogen must first react with hydrogen to form ammonia.

Nitrogen gas is also used to create a non-reactive atmosphere. Also It is used in the electronics industry to produce diodes and transistors and as well as to preserve food. Nitrogen is also used in large quantities for coating and annealing steel. Annealing is the heat treatment of steel.

Liquid nitrogen is often used as a refrigerant. It is used to preserve cells such as sperm and eggs for medical research and reproductive technologies. It is also used to freeze food products to preserve moisture, color, flavor, and texture.

2. Chlorine

Chlorine is an antiseptic and kills bacteria. It is used to purify drinking water and swimming pool water. Also used in the manufacture of hundreds of consumer goodsfrom paper to paints, passing through textiles and pesticides.

About 20% of the chlorine produced used in the production of PVC. This versatile plastic is used in car interiors, window frames, water pipes, electrical wire insulation, vinyl flooring, and blood bags.

Among the important uses of chlorine is organic chemistry. Used as oxidation manager and in substitution settings. Pharmaceutical products in 85% use at some point in the chlorine manufacturing process or its compounds.

In its beginnings, to produce chloroform (anesthetic) chlorine was widely used in the same way as carbon tetrachloride (dry cleaning solvent). However, both chemicals are now strictly controlledas they can cause liver disease.

3. Fluoride

Fluorine was not produced commercially before World War II. Due to the development of nuclear energy, especially atomic bombs, it has become necessary to production of large amounts of fluorine. In ancient times, fluorides were used for a long time to enamel glass and for soldering.

This compound is used to produce uranium hexafluoride, needed in the nuclear industry to separate the isotopes of uranium. It is also used to produce sulfur hexafluoride, an insulating gas for high-power transformers.

the fluorine as well I know used in fluorochemicals, integrated solvents, and high-temperature plastics such as Teflon (poly(tetrafluoroethylene), PTFE). Teflon has non-stick properties and is used in pans. It is also used as insulation for cables, adhesive tapes and as Gore-Tex® lining (waterproof shoes and clothing).

4. Helium

It is a widely used gas in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as refrigerant. As well as in NMR spectrometers and superconducting magnets in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines. Also used for cool satellite equipment and the liquid oxygen and hydrogen that fueled the Apollo spacecraft.

Due to its very low density, it is often used for aircraft, airships and decorative balloons. Hydrogen has been used in the past to fill balloons, but it is reactive and highly dangerous.

helium has a very low reactivity, which is why it is used in inert defense applications, such as fiber optics. As in semiconductor manufacturing and arc welding. Helium is also used in leak control, in air conditioning pipes. Due to its immediate spread, it is also used to inflate airbags in cars.

80% helium and 20% oxygen it is a mixture created for specific purposes. For example, it is used as artificial atmosphere for deep sea divers and others who work under pressure.

At supermarket checkouts, helium-neon gas lasers are used to scan barcodes. A new application of helium is the helium ion microscope, which has higher resolution than a scanning electron microscope.

5. Butane

It is a colorless gas with a slight petroleum odor. The smell can be unpleasant during transport. is transported as liquefied gas under its own pressure steam. May freeze on contact with liquids. It lights up easily. Even heavier than air is its vapor. Leaks can be liquid or vapor.

The butane containers They may violently explode and burst if exposed to fire or high temperature for a long time. It is used as component in fuelslight emitters and other chemicals.

6. Methane

Methane in natural gas is the main component, a common fuel. There are various artificial and natural sources of methane. However, the oil and gas industry is the largest industrial source of pronouncements.

When methane is released into the air before it can be used, it absorbs heat from the sun and heats the atmosphere. For example through leaking pipes. Therefore, like carbon dioxide, it is considered a greenhouse gas.

Other examples of these gases are:

  • Argon
  • Carbon dioxide
  • freon
  • Natural gas
  • Hydrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Ozone
  • Propane
  • Hydrogen sulfide
  • Water steam
  • Xenon

These examples of gases can be divided into two categories: real gases and ideal gases.

ideal gases

An ideal gas is a theoretical model that represents a gas that does not exist in reality. Facilitates Powerful math calculations by allowing a great simplification of the complex behavior of gases.

Gases are made up of particles that neither attract nor repel each other and whose collisions are considered reliable. According to this model, the gases break down when exposed to high pressure and low temperatures.

The general formula of an ideal gas It is a mixture of Boyle-Mariot’s law, Charles’ law, Gay-Lussac’s law, and Avogadro’s law. Avogadro’s law states that:if there are several gases in the same volume and are subjected to the same pressure and temperaturethe same number of particles will be formed”. Consequently, for an ideal gas the equation of state is:

PV = nRT

Where n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the gas constant 8.314 J/Kmol.

draw up a accurate gas enumeration ideals is not possible, since we are dealing with hypothetical gases. It is possible to list a group of gases (including some noble gases) that can be assimilated to the ideal gas process. As long as your properties and continuity are similar and the pressure and temperature conditions are consistent.

real gases

They are gases that are not subject to the same equation of state as ideal gases since have thermodynamic properties. At high pressures and low temperatures, the gas must necessarily be considered real. In this case, the gas enhance cooperation of the particles.

An important difference between ideal and real gases is that real gases are not infinitely compressible. Therefore its compressibility depends on the level of pressure and temperature.

Many equations have been developed to point out the behavior of real gases. One of the most important is the method proposed by Van Der Waals in 1873 for use at high pressure. According to van Der Waals, his equation is expressed as follows:

(P + ntwoavtwo) (V – nb) = nRT

Where a and b are constants that describe the properties of different gases.

types of gases

The gases can be classified according to their properties chemicals as follows:

  • Corrosive: Substances that, in contact with other substances, undergo a significant reduction or oxidation and, in the case of organic substances, damage their components.
  • Ideal: This is not a real gas, but an ideal and practical criterion of how a gas should behave. It is an abstraction.
  • inert or noble: Something that reacts very little to certain situations or conditions.
  • flammable or combustible: Potentially flammable, that is, those that, when exposed to oxygen or other oxidizing agents, have explosive or exothermic properties.
  • oxidizing substance: Any substance capable of causing a flame or flammability causing the combustion of other substances.
  • Toxic: Any substance, eg radioactive gases, that constitutes a health hazard due to its ability to be absorbed by the body.

Plasma

It is considered the incremental fourth statehas much in common with gases because it is essentially an ionized gas.

This means that it is a gas that has gained electromagnetic charge because its particles have lost electrons. There are two types of plasma: cold, like the one used in “mule lamps”, and hot, like the flames that surround the Sun.

reverse sublimation of a gas

As indicated by its name, it refers to the opposite of sublimation. It is the exclusion of the liquid state in the transformation of a gaseous matter to a solid matter. This course demands very specific temperature and pressure conditions.

The solidification of pure gaseous substances into crystals is called crystallization. This is the situation that occurs when ice crystals fall when it snows.

gas condensation

The condensation is the reverse of evaporationthat is, the transformation of a gas into a liquid due to the loss of thermal energy.

The loss of energy causes the gas particles to vibrate more slowly, get closer together, and stick together. Like for example: the frozen crystal on a rainy day or plants wet from dew.

gas evaporation

Evaporation is the daily process by which a liquid turns into a gas using energy (heat). we do it every day. For example, when in the shower the water heats up and turns into steam, or when we boil water in the kitchen.

gas sublimation

Sublimation is the physical process by which a solid turns directly into gas without going through a liquid.

This process is not very common and usually requires special conditions of pressure and temperature, but it can be observed at room temperature on dry ice. A small amount of steam is released from the solid block, but only because the material has returned to its original gaseous state.

gas law

The behavior of gases is described by the perfect gas law, which can also be understood as a combination of other parallel laws.

  • Boyle’s law: States that the volume of a gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to its pressure. It is expressed by the equation: P1xV1=P2xV2.
  • The Gay-Lussac law: Explain that the pressure of a gas at constant volume is directly proportional to its temperature. It is formulated as follows: P1/T1 = P2/T2.
  • charles law: States that, at constant pressure, there is a constant interaction between the temperature and the volume of the gas. The formula is as follows: V1 / T1 = V2 / T2.
  • Avogadro’s Law. Under the same conditions of pressure and temperature, the relative density of a gas is proportional to its atomic number.

properties of a gas

A gas has the following properties:

  • Immune, colorless and tasteless: Most gases are transparent and cannot be touched, as well as being colorless and tasteless. However, they are very different and some gases have a characteristic odor and color.
  • They have no volume of their own.: Due to this, the gas as such occupies the volume of any container.
  • they have no shape of their own: They have the shape of the container where they are located.
  • They can expand and contract: They can be hot or cold, just like solid or liquid materials.
  • They are liquid: Gases, compared to liquids, have practically no interconnections between particles.
  • They are very widespread: Gases tend to mix due to the distances between their particles.
  • They dissolve in the water: Gases and solids can dissolve in liquids such as water.
  • They are highly compressible: Gases can be forced to compress their molecules to occupy a smaller volume. This is how liquefied gases (liquids) are absorbed.

The examples of gases given below let us know that these have different functionalities in everyday life. Whether in the hovercraft flying high, in the balloons you buy for your children in the park. Even when cooking we can see the different types of gases, it is expected that you will get more out of this post.